SHA-3, or Secure Hash Algorithm 3, is a cryptographic hash function designed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It is part of the SHA family and was standardized in 2015. SHA-3 is based on Keccak, a cryptographic sponge function, and it offers improved security and resistance to cryptanalysis compared to its predecessors, such as SHA-1 and SHA-2. SHA-3 produces a fixed-size output (digest) regardless of the input size and is commonly used for digital signatures, message authentication codes (MACs), and data integrity verification in various cryptographic applications.

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